The SoE was one of the first four academic units founded in Can Tho University in 1966. After 1975, the SoE was divided into two different schools: Natural Science Education and Social Science Education with the mission to train high school teachers. Later, they were divided into 5 departments: Mathematics and Physics (1980), Chemistry and Biology 1980); History and Geography (1982); Vietnamese Linguistics and Literature (1983) and Foreign Languages (1983).
The SoE was restructured by merging the 5 departments in 1996. In July 2009, the School of Social Sciences and Humanities was founded, and some SoE staff were transferred to the new schools. In March 2015, CTU founded Center of Foreign Languages, School of English Education and School of French Education, and some SoE staff were transferred to these units. The SoE has also provided human resources for the School of Natural Sciences (founded in 1996) and School of Pre-University (founded in 2007).